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Here's where we'll document the installation of miscellaneous small software packages.
Note that some of these packages may get installed during the installation of the OS, depending on the revision and the options selected. Packages that we've seen get installed include
lsb-release package (including the
lsb_release command) lets scripts determine which version of which distro they're running on.
sudo apt-get install lsb-release
locate program is great for finding files on the system, without
find having to search through a bunch of directories. Debian 5.0 prefers use of the mlocate variant.
sudo apt-get install mlocate sudo /etc/cron.daily/mlocate &
This resolves some issues with Perl complaining about
LANGUAGE when using
sudo apt-get install locales locales-all
This program provides a utility to configure init files for various runlevels.
sudo apt-get install -y sysv-rc-conf
This package is used by several web and email packages (Apache and PINE).
sudo apt-get install mime-support
We'll need OpenSSL and certificate management packages for web and email later (Apache and Postfix).
sudo apt-get install openssl ssl-cert ca-certificates
psmisc package includes some useful tools, including
sudo apt-get install psmisc
lsof program list files (and sockets) that are open, and which processes are using them.
sudo apt-get install lsof
htop program is an enhanced version of
sudo apt-get install htop
strace program allows you to trace all the system calls that a program calls.
sudo apt-get install strace
iotop program allows you to monitor I/O with an interface similar to
sudo apt-get install iotop
sysstat package includes
mpstat, programs used to more closely monitor system performance. Note that I've not yet enabled
sa1 to run from cron; I'll need to edit
/etc/default/sysstat to enable that.
sudo apt-get install sysstat
The "mail" comand line utility was not installed which caused several scripts thet rely on that command to fail. It is part of the mailx package. NOTE: Wait until after installing Postfix to install this; otherwise, it will require exim4 to be installed.
sudo apt-get install mailx liblockfile1
file get installed by default.
sudo apt-get install -y vim vim-doc vim-scripts sudo apt-get install less sudo apt-get install pinfo
sudo apt-get install -y mc
sudo apt-get install unzip zip sudo apt-get install bzip2
wget gets installed by default.
sudo apt-get install -y curl sudo apt-get install links sudo apt-get install lynx-cur # Newer release of lynx sudo apt-get install ncftp sudo apt-get install lftp sudo apt-get install rsync sudo apt-get install -y tidy tidy-doc #sudo apt-get install elinks #sudo apt-get install w3m
Note that netcat apparently gets installed by default in Debian 4.0.
Tcpdump is a good tool for monitoring packets going across the wire. It's helpful when troubleshooting network protocol issues.
sudo apt-get install -y tcpdump
Telnet is no longer good for connecting to remote systems to get shell access. (Always use SSH for remote shell access.) However, it's good for connecting to other ports to test network connectivity. (For example, it's the easiest way to test low-level SMTP functionality.)
sudo apt-get install telnet
mtr program is an enhanced version of
traceroute, with some additional features. We want the "tiny" version, which does not require X11.
sudo apt-get install mtr-tiny
ZModem isn't used much any more, but it can be used to send files across an existing SSH (or any other pty) connection. The
lrzsz package supports ZModem – use the
rz command to receive a file. KDE's Konsole provides good ZModem upload support.
sudo apt-get install lrzsz
NOTE: There are a ton of
-dev packages that we could install. Unless we find a development "super-package", we'll have to install them as-needed.
sudo apt-get install binutils sudo apt-get install -y gcc cpp linux-kernel-headers sudo apt-get install -y g++ sudo apt-get install binutils-doc manpages-dev sudo apt-get install -y gcc-doc cpp-doc sudo apt-get install make autoconf automake libtool flex bison m4 autotools-dev libc6-dev sudo apt-get install glibc-doc libtool-doc sudo apt-get install gdb sudo apt-get install patch sudo apt-get install build-essential dpkg-dev sudo apt-get install diff-doc
These are various source code management (SCM) packages.
sudo apt-get install cvs sudo apt-get install -y subversion subversion-tools db4.4-util sudo sed -i -e 's/^# global-ignores.*$/global-ignores = *.o *.lo *.la #*# .*.rej *.rej .*~ *~ .#* .DS_Store/' \ /etc/subversion/config sudo apt-get install -y git-core git-doc git-svn gitweb sudo cp /usr/share/doc/git-core/contrib/completion/git-completion.bash /etc/bash_completion.d/git
NOTE: Perl gets installed by default now, along with
sudo apt-get install perl-doc sudo apt-get install libcompress-zlib-perl # Compress::Zlib
Install ksh93, tcsh, and csh using apt-get. Add sym links for path variations and add to /etc/shells if not done automatically.
sudo apt-get install ksh sudo apt-get install tcsh sudo apt-get install csh sudo apt-get install zsh zsh-doc sudo ln -s /bin/bash /bin/csh /bin/ksh /bin/sh /bin/tcsh /usr/local/bin sudo ln -s /bin/bash /bin/csh /bin/sh /usr/bin sudo ln -s /usr/bin/perl /usr/local/bin sudo ln -s /usr/bin/perl /bin
The following is used to force automatic logouts for shells that are not within an X session, for security purposes. This can also be done from the SSH daemon.
sudo sh -c 'cat > /etc/profile.d/autologout.sh' << EOF # Automatically logout after 30 minutes idle at command prompt (unless in X). if [ -z "$DISPLAY" ]; then TMOUT=1800 readonly TMOUT export TMOUT fi EOF sudo sh -c 'cat > /etc/profile.d/autologout.csh' << EOF # Automatically logout after 15 minutes idle at command prompt (unless in X). if ( ! $?DISPLAY ) then set -r autologout=30 endif EOF
sudo apt-get install -y python
GNU Privacy Guard is a clone of PGP. The command-line utility is called
gpg and the package is called
gnupg. It's now installed by default.
/etc/logrotate.conf to change the
rotate option for
This step logically belongs on the logging or security pages, but logging hasn't be updated in three years and is not being used on installations, and security is mostly dealing with SSL keys. So put it here for now.
sudo apt-get install -y doc-base
sudo apt-get install tree
bc for doing simple math.
sudo apt-get install bc
Deferred execution scheduler to supplement cron. NOTE: Wait until after installing Postfix to install this; otherwise, it will require exim4 to be installed.
sudo apt-get install at
ack command is a nice replacement for
grep. It does the "right thing" in many ways better than grep – ignores non-text files, backup files, SVN/GIT repositories, etc. For Debian 5.0+ systems, we can simply install the package:
sudo apt-get install ack-grep sudo sh -c 'echo "alias ack=ack-grep" >> /etc/bash.bashrc'