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build:misc [2010/08/02 01:23]
173.203.97.120 IOaDKHFrz
build:misc [2014/09/03 12:05] (current)
Admin Add email clients.
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- http://www.themotherscurse.com/pricelist_tramadol.html tramadol online 994 http://www.agamistathemovie.com/ultram.html buy ultram xttgk http://www.protectoraceuta.com/valium.html valium online 5901 http://www.liberaciondelcannabis.org/acomplia.html acomplia yhi +====== Miscellaneous ====== 
 + 
 +Here's where we'll document the installation of miscellaneous small software packages. 
 + 
 +Note that some of these packages may get installed during the installation of the OS, depending on the revision and the options selected. Packages that we've seen get installed include ''​mailx'',​ ''​lsof'',​ ''​less'',​ ''​w3m'',​ ''​telnet'',​ ''​bc'',​ ''​file'',​ ''​nano'',​ and ''​at''​. 
 + 
 + 
 +===== System ===== 
 + 
 +The ''​chkconfig''​ command is used to set up the soft links in /etc/rc*.d directories,​ based on special comments in the startup scripts. The Debian ''​update-rc.d''​ command does the same thing as ''​chkconfig'',​ but ''​chkconfig''​ is more standard across various distributions. 
 + 
 +<code bash> 
 +sudo apt-get install chkconfig 
 +</​code>​ 
 + 
 +We prefer to use the ''​service''​ command, which provides a simple way to stop and start services. It's the same as running the startup scripts in ''/​etc/​init.d''​ manually, but with a nicer interface (and better command-line completion). Using ''​service''​ is now the preferred way to start and stop services in most Linux distros, including RHEL. Debian Squeeze (6.0) includes the ''​service''​ command in the ''​sysvinit-utils''​ package. In previous versions, the ''​service''​ command was in the ''​insserv''​ package. 
 + 
 +<code bash> 
 +sudo apt-get install sysvinit-utils 
 +</​code>​ 
 + 
 +The ''​lsb-release''​ package (including the ''​lsb_release''​ command) lets scripts determine which version of which distro they'​re running on. 
 + 
 +<code bash> 
 +sudo apt-get install lsb-release 
 +</​code>​ 
 + 
 +The ''​locate''​ program is great for finding files on the system, without ''​find''​ having to search through a bunch of directories. Debian 5.0 and newer prefers use of the mlocate variant. 
 + 
 +<code bash> 
 +sudo apt-get install mlocate 
 +sudo /​etc/​cron.daily/​mlocate & 
 +</​code>​ 
 + 
 +This resolves some issues with Perl complaining about ''​LC_ALL''/''​LANG''/''​LANGUAGE''​ when using ''​en_US.UTF-8''​ encoding. 
 + 
 +<code bash> 
 +sudo apt-get install locales locales-all 
 +</​code>​ 
 + 
 +This program provides a TUI-based utility to configure init files for various runlevels. 
 + 
 +<code bash> 
 +sudo apt-get install sysv-rc-conf 
 +</​code>​ 
 + 
 +This package is used by several web and email packages (Apache and PINE). 
 + 
 +<code bash> 
 +sudo apt-get install mime-support 
 +</​code>​ 
 + 
 +We'll need OpenSSL and certificate management packages for web and email later (Apache and Postfix). 
 + 
 +<code bash> 
 +sudo apt-get install openssl ssl-cert ca-certificates 
 +</​code>​ 
 + 
 +The ''​psmisc''​ package includes some useful tools, including ''​pstree'',​ ''​killall'',​ and ''​fuser''​. 
 + 
 +<code bash> 
 +sudo apt-get install psmisc 
 +</​code>​ 
 + 
 +The ''​lsof''​ program list files (and sockets) that are open, and which processes are using them. 
 + 
 +<code bash> 
 +sudo apt-get install lsof 
 +</​code>​ 
 + 
 +The ''​htop''​ program is an enhanced version of ''​top''​. 
 + 
 +<code bash> 
 +sudo apt-get install htop 
 +</​code>​ 
 + 
 +The ''​strace''​ program allows you to trace all the system calls that a program calls. The ''​ltrace''​ program is similar, but traces library calls. 
 + 
 +<code bash> 
 +sudo apt-get install strace ltrace 
 +</​code>​ 
 + 
 +The ''​iotop''​ program allows you to monitor I/O with an interface similar to ''​top''​. 
 + 
 +<code bash> 
 +sudo apt-get install iotop 
 +</​code>​ 
 + 
 +The ''​sysstat''​ package includes ''​sar'',​ ''​iostat'',​ and ''​mpstat'',​ programs used to more closely monitor system performance. Note that I've not yet enabled ''​sa1''​ to run from cron; I'll need to edit ''/​etc/​default/​sysstat''​ to enable that. 
 + 
 +<code bash> 
 +sudo apt-get install sysstat 
 +</​code>​ 
 + 
 +The ''​checkinstall''​ command lets you easily install packages from sources, and keeps the installation info in the packaging system, so that it can be easily uninstalled. To use it, you generally just build the software then run ''​sudo checkinstall make install''​. 
 + 
 +<code bash> 
 +#sudo apt-get install checkinstall # Not installed in Squeeze, due to too many dependencies. 
 +</​code>​ 
 + 
 + 
 +==== mail command line utility ==== 
 + 
 +The ''​mail''​ command line utility is not installed by default, causing several scripts that rely on it to fail. Previously, we used the ''​mailx''​ variant, which is in the ''​bsd-mailx''​ package in Debian Squeeze (6.0). For Debian Squeeze, we chose to go with the GNU ''​mailutils''​ package instead. It works with a wider range of mail sources, including Maildir folders, and even IMAP. The package also includes the ''​movemail''​ command and a ''​sieve''​ client for configuring mail filters over the SIEVE protocol. 
 + 
 +NOTEWait until after installing Postfix to install this; otherwise, it will force exim4 to be installed. 
 + 
 +<code bash> 
 +sudo apt-get install mailutils 
 +</code> 
 + 
 + 
 +===== Text Editors and Readers ===== 
 + 
 +Everyone has their preferred text editor. For servers, we ensure that nano and vim are available. 
 + 
 +<code bash> 
 +sudo apt-get install nano 
 +sudo apt-get install vim vim-doc 
 +sudo apt-get install less 
 +sudo apt-get install pinfo 
 +</code> 
 + 
 + 
 +===== Console Tools ===== 
 + 
 +Midnight Commander is a TUI-based file managerIt comes in handy on occasion. 
 + 
 +<code bash> 
 +sudo apt-get install mc 
 +</code> 
 + 
 + 
 +===== Packaging and Compression ===== 
 + 
 +<code bash> 
 +sudo apt-get install bzip2 
 +sudo apt-get install unzip zip 
 +</​code>​ 
 + 
 + 
 +===== Web-related ===== 
 + 
 +<code bash> 
 +sudo apt-get install curl 
 +sudo apt-get install links 
 +sudo apt-get install lynx-cur ​ # Newer release of lynx 
 +sudo apt-get install ncftp 
 +sudo apt-get install lftp 
 +sudo apt-get install rsync 
 +sudo apt-get install tidy tidy-doc 
 +sudo apt-get install elinks elinks-doc 
 +sudo apt-get install w3m 
 +</​code>​ 
 + 
 + 
 +===== Network Tools ===== 
 + 
 +Tcpdump is a good tool for monitoring packets going across the wireIt's helpful when troubleshooting network protocol issues. 
 + 
 +<code bash> 
 +sudo apt-get install tcpdump 
 +</​code>​ 
 + 
 +Telnet is no longer good for connecting to remote systems to get shell access. (Always use SSH for remote shell access.) However, it's good for connecting to other ports to test network connectivity. (For example, it's the easiest way to test low-level SMTP functionality.) 
 + 
 +<code bash> 
 +sudo apt-get install telnet 
 +</​code>​ 
 + 
 +The ''​mtr''​ program is an enhanced version of ''​traceroute'',​ with some additional features. We want the "​tiny"​ variant, which does not require X11. 
 + 
 +<code bash> 
 +sudo apt-get install mtr-tiny 
 +</​code>​ 
 + 
 +ZModem isn't used much any more, but it can be used to send files across an existing SSH (or any other pty) connection. The ''​lrzsz''​ package supports ZModem -- use the ''​rz''​ command to receive a file. KDE's Konsole provides good ZModem upload support. 
 + 
 +<code bash> 
 +sudo apt-get install lrzsz 
 +</​code>​ 
 + 
 + 
 +===== Development Tools ===== 
 + 
 +NOTEThere are a ton of ''​-dev''​ packages that we could install. Unless we find a development "​super-package",​ we'll have to install them as-needed. 
 + 
 +<code bash> 
 +sudo apt-get install build-essential 
 +sudo apt-get install make autoconf automake autoconf-doc libtool libtool-doc # NOTE: make-doc was suggested by make, but does not exist. 
 +sudo apt-get install flex bison m4 # NOTE: bison-doc was suggested by bison, but does not exist. 
 +sudo apt-get install diff diff-doc patch 
 +sudo apt-get install gnu-standards 
 +sudo apt-get install manpages-dev 
 +sudo apt-get install linux-kernel-headers 
 +sudo apt-get install binutils-doc glibc-doc # NOTE: gcc-doc and cpp-doc were suggested by build-essential,​ but do not exist. 
 +sudo apt-get install libc6-dev 
 +sudo apt-get install gdb # NOTE: gdb-doc was suggested by gdb, but does not exist. 
 +</code> 
 + 
 + 
 +===== Revision Control ===== 
 + 
 +These are various source code management (SCM) packages. 
 + 
 +<code bash> 
 +sudo apt-get install cvs 
 +sudo apt-get install subversion subversion-tools 
 +sudo sed -e 's/^# global-ignores.*$/​global-ignores = *.o *.lo *.la #*# .*.rej *.rej .*~ *~ .#* .DS_Store/' \ 
 +    -i /​etc/​subversion/​config 
 +sudo apt-get install git-core git-doc git-svn 
 +</​code>​ 
 + 
 + 
 +===== Perl ===== 
 + 
 +<code bash> 
 +sudo apt-get install perl perl-modules perl-doc 
 +</​code>​ 
 + 
 + 
 +===== Java ===== 
 + 
 +We want to install "​headless"​ JRE, so that we don't need X11 librariesIt'd be nice to have Java 7 in addition to Java 6, but Debian 6 does not have Java 7 packages available. We'd like to install the JDK, but it requires X11 for some reason, so we'll do all our development and compiling on our desktops. 
 + 
 +<code bash> 
 +sudo apt-get install openjdk-6-jre-headless openjdk-6-doc 
 +sudo sh -c 'cat > /​etc/​profile.d/​java.sh'​ <<​EOF 
 +JAVA_HOME='/​usr/​lib/​jvm/​java-6-openjdk'​ 
 +export JAVA_HOME 
 +EOF 
 +</​code>​ 
 + 
 + 
 +===== Shells ===== 
 + 
 +Install nearly every shell known to UNIX-kind. 
 + 
 +<code bash> 
 +sudo apt-get install ksh 
 +sudo apt-get install tcsh 
 +sudo apt-get install csh 
 +sudo apt-get install zsh zsh-doc 
 +</​code>​ 
 + 
 + 
 +===== Email ===== 
 + 
 +We're going to install a couple email clients, for those who like to read email via a TUI. 
 + 
 +<code bash> 
 +sudo apt-get install mutt 
 +sudo apt-get install nmh 
 +</​code>​ 
 + 
 + 
 +==== Auto-Logout on Idle Timeout ==== 
 + 
 +The following is used to force automatic logouts for shells that are not within an X session, for security purposes. This can also be done from the SSH daemon. 
 + 
 +<code bash> 
 +sudo sh -c 'cat > /​etc/​profile.d/​autologout.sh'​ << EOF 
 +# Automatically logout after 30 minutes idle at command prompt (unless in X). 
 +if [ -z "​$DISPLAY"​ ]; then 
 +  TMOUT=1800 
 +  readonly TMOUT 
 +  export TMOUT 
 +fi 
 +EOF 
 +sudo sh -c 'cat > /​etc/​profile.d/​autologout.csh'​ << EOF 
 +# Automatically logout after 30 minutes idle at command prompt (unless in X). 
 +if ( ! $?DISPLAY ) then 
 +  set -r autologout=30 
 +endif 
 +EOF 
 +</​code>​ 
 + 
 + 
 +===== Python ===== 
 + 
 +<code bash> 
 +sudo apt-get install python 
 +</​code>​ 
 + 
 + 
 +===== Security ===== 
 + 
 +GNU Privacy Guard is a clone of PGP. The command-line utility is called ''​gpg''​ and the package is called ''​gnupg''​. 
 + 
 +<code bash> 
 +sudo apt-get install gnupg 
 +</​code>​ 
 + 
 + 
 +===== Documentation ===== 
 + 
 +<code bash> 
 +sudo apt-get install doc-base 
 +</​code>​ 
 + 
 + 
 +===== Other ===== 
 + 
 +<code bash> 
 +sudo apt-get install tree 
 +</​code>​ 
 + 
 +The ''​bc''​ calculator is for doing simple math. (It's recommended to always start it with the ''​-l''​ option.) 
 + 
 +<code bash> 
 +sudo apt-get install bc 
 +</​code>​ 
 + 
 +Deferred execution scheduler to supplement cron. 
 + 
 +NOTE: Wait until after installing Postfix to install this; otherwise, it will require exim4 to be installed. 
 + 
 +<code bash> 
 +sudo apt-get install at 
 +</​code>​ 
 + 
 +The ''​[[http://betterthangrep.com/ | ack]]''​ command is a nice replacement for ''​grep''​It does the "right thing" in many ways better than grep -- ignores non-text files, backup files, SVN/GIT repositories,​ etc. For Debian 5.0+ systems, we can simply install the package, but we make a link to make it available as ''​ack''​. 
 + 
 +<code bash> 
 +sudo apt-get install ack-grep 
 +sudo ln -s /​usr/​bin/​ack-grep /​usr/​local/​bin/​ack 
 +sudo mkdir -p /​usr/​local/​share/​man/​man1 
 +sudo ln -s /​usr/​share/​man/​man1/​ack-grep.1p.gz /​usr/​local/​share/​man/​man1/​ack.1p.gz 
 +</​code>​ 
 + 
 + 
 +===== Custom Scripts ===== 
 + 
 +We've created some custom system administration scripts to make things easier for ourselves. We keep them on GitHub, but we'll download them as a ZIP file for simplicity'​s sake. 
 + 
 +<code bash> 
 +wget https://github.com/​boochtek/​sysadmin/​archive/​master.zip -O sysadmin.zip 
 +unzip sysadmin.zip 
 +sudo install -m 755 sysadmin-master/​sbin/​* /​usr/​local/​sbin/​ 
 +</​code>​ 
 + 
 + 
 +===== TODO ===== 
 + 
 +  * Enabled ''​sa1''​ to run from cron; edit ''/​etc/​default/sysstat''​ to enable that. 
 + 
 + 
build/misc.1280730199.txt.gz · Last modified: 2012/12/10 22:41 (external edit)